Equal Rights Amendment Timeline



 Our DNA has been traced back to one black woman in Africa known as the Mitochondrial Eve-

1619 Ninety young single women came from England to become wives "Tobacco Brides"

1619  First black Africans came to Virginia as indentured servants; 

1641 Massachusetts and 1661 Virginia passed slave laws converting indentured servants to slaves. Any small freedoms that might have existed for blacks were taken away;

1700s American women remained under a carryover of British common law: a restrictive legal condition know as coverture.  

(The legal framework that was used for slaves was the same framework that was used for women.  Coverture for women held that they had no legal identity. Everything was under their  fathers and then their husbands. Unmarried women and widows had some freedom but very limited.) 

(Important to keep in mind that 1 in 8 women died in childbirth in America prior to introduction of antibiotics in 1940s)

1763 - 1787 American Revolution; 

1776 - In middle of the American Revolution Abagail Adams wrote her famous letter to John Adams saying as you write the founding documents for this new country “Remember the Ladies” because unlimited power in the hands of husbands makes them tyrants and if you don’t remember us “Ladies” we will foment rebellion;   http://bit.ly/2gaH0gN

April 14, 1776 John Adams responded and said “Depend on it, We know better than to repeal our masculine systems.”  http://bit.ly/2ypV4go

July 4, 1776 the Declaration of Independence was adopted applying only to white men;

 "Women furiously protested their inferior status and their inability to fully participate in American political life" *

1776 "I have in some measure acted the heroine as well as my dear Husband the Hero."**

1776 We... possess Spirit that will not be conquered.  If our Men as all drawn off and we should be attacked, you would find a race of Amazons in America."***

December 15, 1791 Bill of Rights first 10 amendments to the Declaration of Independence (applying only to white men);

"Many women participated in ratification debates and all played a part in making the new Constitution "work on the ground"*

1790s "Some women took an active role in partisan politics. "Female Politicians" openly engaged in debates in salon, social events and at rallies"*. 

1770 Essay "On the Equality of a Woman" written by Judith Sargent Murray 

1792 Mary Wollstonecraft published "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman"arguing that natural rights-universally bestowed by God, and irrevocable-applied to both women and men.  Women deserved equal educational, economic and political opportunities. The work was favorably received by women and men. *

1800 "Republican Motherhood" encouraged Anglo-American women's education and literacy which approached 50% by 1800.* 

1827 First railroad opens in America 

1830s "New York Female Moral Reform Society" lobbied to criminalize prostitution and threatened to publish client's names as women streamed into the nations cities.  

1830s Men seek to control the lucrative medical profession and discredit midwives and women healers. 

1837 The Grimke Sisters from South Carolina lectured to 1000s of people about women's rights and abolition. Sarah - "I ask no favors for my sex. All I ask of our brethren is that they take their feet off our necks." 

 1848 Anti-slavery women including Abby Kelley, Lucy Stone and Susan B. Anthony met in Seneca Falls, New York and laid the foundation for the Women’s Rights Movement; 

 1848 “Declaration of Sentiments” based on the Declaration of Independence written by Elizabeth Cady Staton and upholding the equality of women was presented at the Seneca Falls Convention;  

"We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men and women are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights ... The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpation on the part of man towards woman."  

1848 Seneca Falls Convention excludes Black Women

1848 American Medical Association organizes; 

1853 Sarah Parker Remond files lawsuit against 2 men who ejected her from an opera in Boston for reasons of race;

1859 Creation of vulcanized rubber allows dependable condoms to be mass produced;

1860 30,000 miles of Railroad track in operation in US;

 1861-1865 Civil War fought to free all slaves including women; 

1865 President Lincoln assassinated (One wonders if women would have been given more equality in Civil War Amendments13, 14 & 15  if he had lived.) 

1866 5/1 Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, a leading poet, lecturer and civil rights activist, addressed the 11th  National Women's Rights Convention in New York, joining Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Lucretia Mott, with speech "We Are All Bound Together" 

1860s Sarah Parker Remond tours Northeast with brother Charles on abolitionist speaking circuit supporting women's voting rights.

1866 Woman suffrage supporters organized the American Equal Rights Association (AERA) 

 1868 Civil War Amendments (aka Reconstruction Amendments) to the Constitution 13th ending slavery, 14th equal protection of the law and 15th the right to vote were suppose to be for women and men.

(Split among women’s rights activists and final outcome was that amendments were ratified only for men leaving women without freedom, equal protection of law or vote.) 

1870 Charlotte Rollin of Charleston SC gave speech at National Suffrage Convention arguing for women's rights; https://nyti.ms/2GnrIUn 

1870 AERA  had splintered into the National Woman Suffrage Association,(NWSA)  led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, considered the more radical group, supported a Federal Amendment to enfranchise women and  The American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), considered the more mainstream group, led by Lucy Stone and Julia Ward Howe, adopted a state-by-state approach to winning the vote for women. 

1871 Mary Ann Shadd Cary first African American female lawyer and first black woman in North American to edit and publish a newspaper tried unsuccessfully to register to vote 

1872 Susan B Anthony arrested for casting a ballot in a presidential election.  

 1873 Congress passes Comstock Laws criminalizing the distribution of information on contraception in US mail; (Mass production of condoms began in1860s)

 1875 ish States pass state laws criminalizing possessing or selling obscene materials including information on contraception;  (Forced Birthing Demanders stripped women of civil rights. 1 in 8 women die in childbirth up to 1940s)

 1875 3/29 — The Unites States Supreme Court rules in "Minor v. Happersett", for the second time in two years, that the 14th Amendment does not protect a woman’s right to vote

1880 Every State had criminalized abortion 

1882 the diaphragm was invented  allowing women to control their own fertility for the first time in modern times. 


1885 Gertrude Bustill Mossell  wrote her first article in The New York Freeman.   entitled “Woman Suffrage,” encouraged women to read suffrage history and articles on women’s rights. 

1890s Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin continued to urge white women to join with black women to further women’s advancement, but her pleas fell largely on deaf ears outside of Massachusetts, http://bit.ly/2Bmnau2

1893 Matilda Joslyn Gage publishes 20 years of research in "Woman, Church and State" outlining the variety of ways in which Christianity oppressed women and reinforced patriarchal systems;

 1893 Johns Hopkins starts to train male doctors. Women discredited, sexually harassed and faced arrest for teaching, using or distributing contraception.

1895-1898 Elizabeth Cady Stanton & committee of 26 women challenged the religious orthodoxy that women should be subordinate to man publishing the "Women's Bible" ;

1890 NWSA and AWSA united becoming the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). ("Black women did not accept their exclusion from white suffrage organizations or the racist tactics employed by white suffragists.  In the twentieth century, more and more Black women joined the ranks of suffragists as the movement progressed".)  http://bit.ly/2Bmnau2

  1896 Supreme Court established the doctrine of separate but equal in "Plessy v. Ferguson" blessing Jim Crow laws.

1896 Fannie Barrier Williams, Mary Church Terrell & others helped found the National Association of Colored Women & was a lifelong supporter of women's rights; 

By 1900 American Medical Association successful in making sure abortion is illegal in every State in nation. Exception is if a male doctor determines the life of mother at stake. Women denied entrance to medical schools. 

By 1900 24 states had enacted their own versions of the Comstock Act, many of which were more stringent than the federal statute. 

Read more: Comstock Law of (1873) - Materials, Court, Women, and Abortion - JRank Articles http://law.jrank.org/pages/5508/Comstock-Law-1873.html#ixzz5XyNFvWHO

 1907 The Colony Club opens in New York City bringing women together and they advocate for the vote and equality;

1907 real funding begins for medical schools denying money to women's schools and education; (Flexner Report) ("medical schools closed by the score" denying black men and all females access) 

1908 Alva Belmont, as a widow, begins to become a leader for the suffragist movement in New York and Newport Rhode Island;  She underwrites legal scholar Alice Paul. 

1910 50% of babies in US delivered by midwives

1912 State after State passed laws outlawing midwifery;  (1 in 8 women dying in childbirth) 

1915 Coralie Franklin Cook article published "Votes for Mothers” in the NAACP magazine The Crisis  

1917 Women began picketing the White House “  www.AlicePaul.org

January 10, 1917 to June 4, 1919 Silent Sentinels stood in front of the White House 6 days a week demanding the right to vote denied them in the 1868 Civil War Amendments to the Constitution.

June 22, 1917 arrests began of the Silent Sentinels.  Alice Paul goes on hunger strike in prison 

1919  May 24 — The Minnesota Legislature enfranchises women with vote for presidential electors

1919 May 24  — The League of Women Voters, a nonpartisan U.S. political organization, is established at a national convention as the successor to the National American Woman Suffrage Association, St. Louis, Missouri

1920  Women got the 19th Amendment ratified effectively giving white women the vote; (black women were disenfranchised in the former Confederate States and others; 

"The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." 

(It wasn't until 1965 that the Voting Rights Act blocked the States from discrimination in voting) 

1921 first Equal Rights Amendment ("ERA")  introduced in Congress drafted by Alice Paul and Crystal Eastman solidifying rights that women were slated to get after the Civil War; 

1923 Final Draft  now ratified by 37 States  -  

 Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification.

 ERA introduced in every session of Congress until it passed in 1972; EqualRightsAmendment.org 

 1939 1 in 8 women are still dying in childbirth;  (Today 1 in 8 women are diagnosed with breast invasive breast cancer) 

1940 Only 3% of eligible African-Americans in the South are registered to vote due to Jim Crow laws & racial terror;

 1940 introduction of antibiotics begins to reduce maternal mortality; 

1940 Republican Party endorses ERA

 1948 President Truman integrated the armed services and began dismantling Jim Crow laws.

1950 & 1953 US Senate approves ERA with Hayden Rider that would preserve special protections for women. Alice Paul asks to have it withdrawn. 

 1954 Supreme Court held in "Brown v. Board of Education that racially serrated public schools are inherently unequal and violate the Constitution. 

1958 President Dwight Eisenhower (R) endorses ERA in joint session of Congress.

1961 12/14  "Presidential Commission on the Status of Women" formed by President Kennedy and chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt. 

1963 2/19 "Feminine Mystique" by Betty Friedan published

1964 Civil Rights Act which ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin, US Rep Martha Griffiths (D-MI) successfully adds word "sex" into Title VII.

 (Alice Paul was instrumental in getting the word sex included in Title VII so discrimination against women by employers with more than 15 employees became illegal. However without the ERA in place there remains great latitude for discrimination and no federal protection for employers with under 15 employees.)


1965 The Voting Rights Act is passed to finally guarantee Black voters including Black women the right to vote (2013 Supreme Court kills heart of VRA) 

 1965  6.5 million women are taking oral contraception;  (average number of children for a women if she doesn't have access to reliable birth control is seven) 

1971 7/1 26th Amendment reduces the voting age to 18 years of age 

1971 US Rep Griffiths circulates Discharge Petition to blast ERA out of Judiciary Committee. US Rep Gerald Ford (R-MI) helps get last several signatures US House approves ERA 

1972 US Senate approves ERA Seven-year time limit is added to proposing clause. Michigan ratifies ERA in May with bipartisan support.  

 1972 Title IX becomes law making sex discrimination illegal on school campuses accepting Federal funds;  (Penalty for non compliance is the removal of Federal Funding. Since 1972 no school has had the funding cut for sex discrimination.) 

"No person in the US shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance"

 1972 MS Magazine founded by Gloria Steinem and Letty Cottin Pogrebin during the "Second-Wave Feminist Movement".  

 1972 Pornographers begin ramp up of pornography (hate speech against women)  as courts refuse to limit First Amendment Rights;

 1972 Phyllis Schlafly Republican operative begins nationwide movement "Stop ERA" under the "Eagle Forum"

 1973 Sept ABA Journal  Vol. 59 Ruth Bader Ginsburg writes "The Need for the Equal Rights Amendment" 

1973 Supreme Court decides "Roe v Wade" recognizing a women's right to privacy and her right to end a pregnancy without Government interference; 

 1973 September Billie Jean King wins over Bobby Riggs in the battle of the sexes tennis match. 

 1973 "US Open tennis tournament offer equal prize money to both women and men for the first time"*

 1974 July 29, Philadelphia, 11 women broke rank and were ordained as the first female priests in the Episcopal Church. They became known as the “Philadelphia Eleven. 

1976 National coalition ERAmerica is formed to counter Phyllis Schaffly's Stop Era. Illy Peterson (R) and Liz Carpenter (D) are co-chairs. First of three unsuccessful attempts to rescind Michigan's ratification . Michigan's first Lady, Helen Milliken and Elly Peterson conversation meeting of ERA supporting organizations. Michigan ERA is formed.

 1977 Hyde Amendment defunds US Government paying for abortion except clear risk of mother's death. Carving out Medicaid, Medicare, Military, Peace Corps Volunteers, US servicewomen and veterans, women in prison or immigration detention facilities, Federal Employees, DC residents  (Covering 1 in 5 US women of reproductive age);  

1978 July 9 Over 100,000 people marched on Washington DC to extend the ERA ratification deadline set to expire on 3/29/1979  

1978 Congress extends three year time limit to June 30, 1982 Bill sponsored by Ted Kennedy (D-MA) 

1979 3/22  35 States have ratified the Equal Rights Amendment and no additional States ratify before the 6/30/1982 deadline imposed by Congress. 

1979 UN adopts a treaty Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. (CEDAW) 

(The United States and Palau have signed, but not ratified the treaty. The Holy See (Vatican), Iran, Somalia, Sudan and Tonga are not signatories to CEDAW)

 1979 First Epic Feminist Artwork by Judy Chicago "The Dinner Party" goes on tour. It is seen by 15 million people.  

1980 Republican party drops endorsement of ERA

1982 June 30 deadline for State ratification of ERA expires without reaching the 38 State minimum.  Amendment does not become part of Constitution and women remain 2nd class citizens under the law.  

(35 States ratified - 5 of those States have attempted to rescind ratification Nebraska (3/15/73) Tennessee (4/23/74) Idaho (2/8/77) Kentucky (3/17/78) South Dakota (3/1/79))

1982 Unratified States - Arizona, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia   (Nevada ratified in 2017 & Illinois in 2018 1 more State needed) 

Based on legal precedent we just need  3 additional States of the 15 unratified States to ratify for ERA to be added to Constitution; 

1982 ERA introduced into each succeeding Congress where it dies in Committee. 

1990 Allie Hixson  (KY) & Flora Crater (VA) convened a meeting of ERA supports at the Sewel-Belmont House in DC  Representatives came from VA, KY, IL, MI, NY, NJ, PA & 1 woman represented IA & FL. They called themselves the ERA Summit with sole purpose of jump-starting a new effort to ratify a start-over ERA

 1992 Congress ratified the 203 year-old Madison Amendment - concerning Congressional pay raise.  ERA Summit members wondered if this meant the ERA deadline of 1982 could be ignored & seek legal opinion.

1993 Three University of Richmond, VA students write legal brief "Why the Equal Rights Amendment Viable and Legally Before the States" ERA Summit develops "Three-State Strategy" commissioned by the ERA Summit 

1994 Rep Rob Andrews (D-NJ) introduced bill that would recognize ratification of 3 more States. (ERA Summit member Barbara Irvine convinced him to sponsor. Sen Ted Kennedy (D-MA) refuses to introduce companion bill in Senate. Activists in unratified states begin introducing ratification bills. 

1997 through efforts of Flora Crater head of William & Mary Law Department they published in Journal of Women & Law the article "Why the Equal Rights Amendment Remains Viable and Properly Before the States"

Circa 2000 ERA Campaign Network is formed by Jennifer Macleod (NJ). Unratified state activists report legislators refuse to vote for ERA because they don't know whether Congress will recognize their votes to ratify. 

2009 Carolyn Cook of United 4 Equality and Maryland National Organization of Women developed the Deadline Removal Strategy. Introduced by Rep Rob Andrews (D-NJ) and joined in Senate by Senator Ben Cardin (D-MD)  (Tammy Baldwin took over from Rob Andrews) 

2010 Supreme Court case "Citizens United" cements legal corporate citizenship; 

 2011 Justice Scalia clearly states that it is legal to discriminate against women because the ERA remains unratified and says the US needs to ratify ERA for Constitutional equality;  http://bit.ly/2nK2QeA

 2011 March 8th Tammy Baldwin & Co-sponsor Robert Andred present H.J.Res.47 to remove the arbitrary 1982 ERA deadline.

 2011 Activists continue working on grassroots to get ERA ratified  ERAAction.org leads political fight; 

 2012 Helene de Boissiere-Swanson begins pilgrimage walking across the 15 unratified States to bring awareness for the need of ERA ratification.  See katrinasdream.org 

 2012 Emerge America begins training Democratic women to run for office in Nevada the only State with legalized prostitution;  https://emerge.ngpvanhost.com

10/25/2012 The Federal Archivist, in response to a request by Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney, writes a letter saying he will publish the ERA when 38 States ratify. 

 2014 Oregon adds an Equal Rights Amendment to it's Constitution First State to add an ERA in 30 years. 

 2014 July 3 Supreme Court case "Hobby Lobby" grants corporations the right to deny employees birth control under health plans; 

 2014 September Jean Sweeney begins Tweeting about the Equal Rights Amendment under Rethinking Eve sets up Facebook as well. The only person on Twitter passionately focused on the issue; 

2015 Jessica Neuwirth, Esq. of ERA Coalition coordinates with director Kamala Lopez and has a book “Equal Means Equal” published.  It is a clarion call for the ERA; 

 2015 President Obama issues a new law guaranteeing free coverage of birth control;

2016 American Bar Association House of Delegates adopts a Resolution in support of ERA.

2016 Director Kamala Lopez releases the documentary “Equal Means Equal” exposing what the US looks like for women without the ERA;   www.EqualMeansEqual.com

 2016 President Barack Obama designated Sewall-Belmont House in Washington DC as the Belmont-Paul Women’s Equality National Monument, named for Alice Paul and Alva Belmont; 

 2017 January 21st - worldwide protests for women's rights as human rights involving 10 million people. (Women's March organizers won't promote the ERA activists stunned) 

2017 Carolyn Maloney's (D-NY) ERA "Start Over" Bill with language "Women shall have equal rights in the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction" is hailed by leaders of women's rights organizations. HJRes33 She has introduced the bill in the last 10 Congressional sessions.  However grassroots activists push 3 State Strategy. 

 2017 March 22 -  Nevada becomes 36th State to ratify the ERA surprising women leaders.  (Janette Dean had met Helene de Boissiere-Swanson in Nevada while Helene was walking for ERA Janette then carried ERA ball in Nevada working with NV legislator Pat Spearman (D) )  

 2017 Bills introduced in Senate (Cardin) & House (Speier) to drop the arbitrary ratification deadline  (S.J. Res 5 & H.J. Res 53)

 2017 New launch of website for activists and funding- www.EqualMeansEqual.org

 2017 President Trump rolls back the birth control mandate allowing any employer to choose not to include birth control in it's health plan. 

 2017 Senate voting rules changed to majority of Senate from 60 votes and ultra conservative Neil Gorsuch put onto the Supreme Court. (Nuclear Option) 

 2017 Gloria Steinem celebrates 45 years of MS Magazine.  

2017 Girl Scout Troop 3484 begins Twitter ERA Campaign & creates Girl Scout Symbol with ERA

2018 #MeToo and #TimesUp is trending 

2018 New website RatifyERA.org begins (Storm Onole discovers that Virginia Mark Cole is lying about the archivist and brings to light the fallacy of the Republican position)   

2018 Women's Marches held again across the Country & the world with women asserting that they are to be equally honored and respected.  

2018 February 9 Activists gather in Richmond Virginia and watch as men on the Rules committee vote to deny hearings on the Equal Rights Amendment.  (Dies in Committee yet again)  Activists realize that the head of the Committee used false information to sway the vote.  

2018 March 2014 "Equal Means Equal" shown in Chicago and activists continue working to get State to ratify.  

2018 March 24 "March for Our Lives" marches for more gun control held around the country led by students from Stoneman Douglas High School 

2018 April 11 Senate in State of Illinois votes to ratify the ERA (House must vote)

2018 April 24 Jean Sweeney goes to day of training at NOW office in Washington DC and is given a packet of bills to lobby for on the Hill. The packet does not include dropping the ERA deadline. Jan Erickson the NOW Government Relations Director has no legitimate reason to leave out SJRes5 & HJRes33  NOW begins to reconsider its position. 

2018 April 25   Eileen Davis from Women-Matter & Jean Sweeney from Rethinking Eve attend NOW "Enough is Enough" conference and  embarrass women leaders and get them to focus and talk about 3 State Strategy ERA; 

2018 April 25 Carolyn Maloney NY holds press conference and talks about the importance of ratifying ERA along with Ellie Smeal, Carol Robles Roman and others. 

2018 Writings by NOW, Feminist Majority and ERA Coalition purposely muddy the waters between start over ERA and 3 State Solution. The bills to drop the 1982 deadlines are sidelined.  (SJRes5 & HJRes53) 

2018 May 16  Illinois ERA Resolution SJRCA4 has been favorably recommended to the floor for a vote by Health Human Services Committee. 

 2018 May 30 Illinois House votes 72-45 to become the 37th State to ratify ERA. Democrat Mary Flowers votes "No" Republican Steven Andersson votes "Yes" and pulls final votes. 

2018 June 6th Carolyn Maloney holds Shadow Hearing on ERA ratification and Alyssa Milano testifies along with Carole Robles-Roman, Carol Jenkins and Jessica Lenahan.  Still purposely muddying the waters between "Start Over Bill"  HJRes33 and 1 State Solution HJRes53  Last ERA hearing was 1984. 

2018 Women leaders slowly getting on board with the 3 State Solution and putting ratification of 1 more state upfront in conversation rather than Maloney's start over bill HJRes33.

2018 Based on work by Jean Sweeney & Jan Erickson July 8th National Organization of Women votes on a resolution to support SJRes5 and HJRes53   Added to their legislative agenda going forward. (Kamala Lopez of Equal Means Equal and her attorney Wendy Murphy vehemently oppose the drop deadline strategy) 

2018 by July 48,000 Tweets had been sent by Jean Sweeney  under social media handle "Rethinking Eve".  Facebook page has the current articles. 

2018 August 1 United4Equality begins campaign  to get SJRes5 and HJRes53 Co-Sponsored to drop the arbitrary 1982 ratification deadline. Maureen Gehrig Cook (Mom) and Carolyn A. Cook (Daughter)  fizzles - 

 2018 September Hearings to put ultra conservative Forced Birthing Demander Brett Kavanaugh on Supreme Court  (because of Nuclear Option only needed majority vote of Senate.) 

2018 10/29 - ERA Coalition puts together panel for "A New ERA for the ERA: women of Color Lead the Way" Carol Robles-Roman moderates (Pat Spearman NV, Jennifer McCellan VA Carla Cunningham NC, Hala Ayala VA)

2018 October - Kamala Lopez director, producer of documentary "Equal Means Equal" focuses on Arizona with Newspaper Advertisements and Equality Tour 11/1&3 

2018 11/9  Ten Day Bus tour begins in Virginia "10 Days of ERA" 

2018 Congress becomes democratic with many women winning seats. Abigail Spanberger daughter of Eileen Davis wins VA congressional seat. They are big proponents of ERA.

2018 November VARatifyERA has a bus travel around Virginia for 10 days to highlight the need for Virginia to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment. Strategy led by Katie Hornung. 

2018 11/27 Brennan Center for Justice, meeting of legal scholars “The Equal Rights Amendment: A Century in the Making". 

2018 10/20 Gloria Steinem show begins "Gloria: A Life" and does not tell audience that ERA remains unratified and women remain without a legal framework for equality  (asked to update by ERA Coalition and refuses) 

2018 Heidi Schreck does 1 woman show "What the Constitution Means to Me" and it does not address the lack of the ERA.  Working with ERA Coalition she is updating the show for the 2019 spring show. 

2019 1/15 Virginia Senate votes for ERA ratification. Being blocked in VA House by Speaker Kirk Cox and by legislator Mark Cole. (They will not let out of Privileges & Elections Committee) 

2019 1/15 ERA Coalition under Jessica Neuwirth finalizes draft of The Equal Rights Amendment: Advocacy, Litigation, and the 38th State. Setting forth a go on all fronts

.(Kamala Lopez with Wendy Murphy, Esq were seeking to end the drop the deadline legislative push arguing it would hurt an offensive legal strategy)

2019 1/15 Linda Coberly of Winston & Strawn has agreed to serve as the Chair of ERA Coalition Legal Task Force 

2019 1/16 Delaware passes a State Equal Rights Amendment

2019 1/30 Storm Onole restarts RatifyERA.org & tracks progress in all the States

2019 2/5 State of the Union Congresswomen wear white and some have ERA Yes buttons prominently of their labels (the work of Jean Sweeney & ERA Coalition Bettina Hager) 

2019 Virginia Senate ratifies ERA with bipartisan support. Leadership in House of Delegates refuses to let bill come to floor for a vote. 

2019 New bills to drop the ERA time limit are reintroduced in Congress SJRes 6 and HJRes 38

2019 Carolyn Maloney ERA start over bill is reintroduced HJRes 35. Senator Menendez parallel bill 

2019 3/11 women marching in Arizona for 38 miles to represent 38 states need to ratify the ERA

2019 state activists working in Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Arizona and Georgia to get state ratification

2019 New York Assembly votes to approve NY State Constitutional amendment same as Federal wording to give women equal rights. Senate must approve and then bill goes to the citizens for a vote in 2021. (A271 Seawright)

2019 25 States without a State Constitution that specifically embraces women as equal citizens - 

Alabama Arizona Arkansas Georgia Idaho Kansas Kentucky Maine Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Nevada, New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Vermont West Virginia Wisconsin


Rhode Island, Florida, Virginia & Utah courts ruled women not equal (32)

2019 March MSNBC does 60 minute documentary about the ERA and does not mention that Nevada and Illinois have ratified the ERA and we are now 1 State short of the 38 states needed to move the country to a democracy. Activists are flabbergasted. 

2019 3/31 Heidi Schreck open "What the Constitution Means to Me" at Helen Hayes theatre and adds the fact that the Constitution does not include women and we need the Equal Rights Amendment. 

2019 4/1 North Dakota senators narrowly rejected a proposal rescinding the State's ratification of the ERA.

2019 4/15 ERA Coalition has 4th Annual ERA Campus Day Carol Jenkins moderator Jessica Neuwirth  Heidi Schreck, Rep Carolyn Maloney, Rep. Jerrold Nadler group BETTY On Facebook live Rep Barbara Lee Del Jennifer Foy Sen Patricia Spearman actress Patricia Arquette. 


2019 4/15 Rep Jerry Nadler announces Congressional hearings on HJRes38 to drop the arbitrarily ERA deadline to be held 4/30/2019 


2019 4/30 Congressional Hearing on ERA focusing on HJRes 38 to drop the 1982 deadline -Opening statements by Rep. Jackie Speier (D-CA) and Rep. Carolyn Maloney (D-NY)  Panel Pat Spearman legislator from NV instrumental in getting NV to ratify 2017, Patricia Arquette actress, Kathleen Sullivan, Esq. partner Quinn, Emanuel, Urquhart & Sullivan and Elizabeth Price Foley,Esq. professor at Florida International University College of Law.

 2019 June - Sen Brad Hoylman blocks the NY Senate from voting on a NY State ERA which was passed by the NY Assembly. A271 S3249  He allows a vote on whether to decriminalize men's purchase of women's bodies in surrogacy and prostitution. 

2019 September Kamala Lopez and her team rent a house and with volunteers begin a bus tour "Legalize Equality" of targeted areas of Virginia.   

2019 10/26 All day conference at University of Richmond Law School "A New ERA for the Equal Rights Amendment"  Jean Sweeney on panel "The Path Forward" with attorneys Linda T. Coberly, Danaya C. Wright and D. Patricia Wallace. 

 2019 11/5 Payoff for hundreds of activists working to get Virginia to elect pro ERA candidates. VA moves blue.  Led by Kati Hornung VARatify.org and Eileen Davis women-matter.org. Kamala Lopez and her team spent 2 months on a bus that says "Legalize Equality" going around targeted districts in VA.  

2019 11/9 Jean Sweeney goes to Town Hall for congressman Jim Himes and thanks him for help on ERA, updates audience on where we are and requests that he put the marked up bill to drop the deadline HJRes79 front and center. 

2019 11/13  HJRes 38 now HJRes 79  to drop the ERA timeline arbitrarily imposted by Congress is being marked up  Led by Jackie Speier  (companion Senate Bill SJRes6 sponsored by Ben Cardin) 


12/18/19 Pre-empting Virginia ratifying as the 38th State Alabama, Louisiana and South Dakota attorney generals have filed a lawsuit in federal court 11th Circuit against the Archivist of the United States,  David S. Ferriero, seeking to prevent him from adding the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution


In response to filing of the lawsuit the Archivist asked for an opinion for the Office of Legal Counsel.  

 1/5/2020 Equal Means Equal files a lawsuit in Federal Court in Massachusetts on behalf of women demanding the Federal Archivist publish the ERA   Equal Means Equal, et al., v. Ferriero, Docket No. 1:20-cv-10015-DJC (D. Mass).


1/6/2020 Office of Legal Counsel under Attorney General Barr issues a 38 page opinion and maintains that the time limit has expired and that the State actions by rescinded States were valid (https://www.justice.gov/olc/file/1232501/download) 

Constitutional experts immediately declared the OLC's opinion non-binding


"Plaintiffs have filed this action to ensure that the Archivist properly records Virginia’s ratification and the ERA’s ratification, and that the Archivist does not improperly remove prior ratifications by any state. Plaintiffs, therefore, seek by this complaint appropriate writs and court orders ensuring that the ERA is recorded as duly ratified as soon as Virginia ratifies."    (http://bit.ly/2s7rOL2)  

 01/15/20  Virginia becomes the 38th State to ratify the ERA  House votes 59-40 and Senate votes 28-12 

January 2020 Lawsuit filed by 3 States on behalf of States 186 Virginia et al., v. Ferriero, Docket, Docket No. 1:20-cv-00242-RC (D.D.C.).

01/27/20 Virginia officially ratifies the ERA becoming the 38th and last State needed for ratification


02/01/20 20 Democratic State Attorneys General in a letter called on Congress to pass ERA

2/10/20 Ruth Bader Ginsburg spoke at annual gathering of law students at Georgetown University her remarks addressed questions concerning the ERA and some in the media have distorted her remarks - see https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2020/02/ruth-bader-ginsburg-equal-rights-amendment/606556/  

2/11/20 In a letter to House and Senate leaders 20 Democratic State Attorneys General called on Congress to pass the ERA 


02/13/20 US House voted to remove the 1982 ERA Deadline  HJRes79 introduced by Jackie Speier  Vote was 232 to 183 Five Republicans voted "yes"  John Curtis (UT) Rodney Davis (IL) Brian Fitzpatrick (PA) Tom Reed (NJ) Jeff Van Drew (NJ) 

SJRes6 companion bill to HJRes79 introduced in Senate & has 48 co-sponsors All Democrats support it as well as Senators Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) Susan Collins (ME) & Augus King (I-ME) 

 3/7/20 VA Ratify has conference in Richmond to discuss next steps. Rebranding as Vote Equality.  Attended by Jean Sweeney with Coline Jenkins the great, great granddaughter of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. 

3/8/2020  Celebrate!38 equality parade Richmond Virginia to celebrate VA becoming the 38th and final State needed to ratify the ERA  Begins at Monroe Park and makes it way to VA State Capital.  Photo of hundreds of people celebrating ERA   Jean Sweeney & Coline Jenkins attending. National women leaders had attended the legislative session for the "win" and did not attend these grassroots events. 

03/02/20 Federal District Judge in Alabama dismisses lawsuit brought by attorney generals in November.

4/13/20 attached to Coronavirus bill Governor Cuomo  makes it fully legal to buy and sell women's bodies for surrogacy over objections by Gloria Steinem and activists.  NYS does not have a Constitution that gives women equal rights with men. 

 5/2020 Coronavirus has a grip on the United States and the world. 

5/20/20 Activists begin a letter writing campaign to 51 Republican Senators from 30 States that have refused to Co-Sponsor SJRes6 to drop the arbitrary ERA deadline of 1979 extended to 1982.  (Watch Congresswoman Lofgren explain the position on dropping the deadline "Better safe than sorry"  - Congresswoman Lofgren go to 1:18  http://bit.ly/2rrTVnE.)  

5/20/20 Jean Sweeney as Rethinking Eve continues to be the only one on Twitter consistently dedicated to helping get the message out about the need for the ERA.  She has 227,000 impressions and 3865 followers 

6/15/20 Supreme Court decides Bostock v. Clayton County case stating that  "sex" in Title VII includes gender identity and sexual orientation for the purposes of employment discrimination.  

1/20/21 Joe Biden Becomes president

1/20/21 President Biden signs "Executive Order Preventing and Combating Discrimination on the basis of Gender Identity or Sexual Orientation" and gives his department 100 days to write guidelines.  The word "sex" is purposely left out which conflates sex and gender and erodes women's rights. 

1/21/21 HJRes17 introduced in the House to drop the ERA ratification deadline. Sponsored by Congresswoman Jackie Speier (D CA)

1/22/21 SJRes1 introduced in the Senate to drop the ERA Ratification deadline. Co-Sponsored by Senator Cardin (D MD)  and Senator Murkowski (R AK) 

2/18/21 Equality Act conflating sex and gender and denying sex based rights in Title VI is introduced in the House; 

2/25/21 Equality Act passes in the House  224 to 206; 

3/17/21 The US House of Representatives votes on HJRes17 to drop the ERA Deadline;

4/15/21 Activists still asking President Joe Biden to remove  Attorney General Barr OLC letter to the Archivist and push the Federal Archivist to certify the Equal Rights Amendment as the 28th Amendment 

4/2021 Activists working on getting the Senate to vote on SJRes1 to drop the arbitrary ERA deadline.

5/5/2021 1st Circuit of Appeals hears Equal means Equal Lawsuit -  5/5/21 1st Circuit Court of Appeals 3:05 whole argument.  Wrap up for ERA by Wendy Murphy, Esq 3:49
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJmwuiocglI  Virginia et al., v. Ferriero, 1:20-cv-00242 (DC Dist.), Doc. #117, March 5, 2021.

6/29/21 MA 1st circuit court of appeals rejecting standing on Equal Means Equal lawsuit 

10/21/21 Carolyn Maloney holds a hearing on the Equal Rights Amendment in the Oversight Committee.  

1/1/2022 Rethinking Eve starts the Hail Mary Strategy to put pressure on the US Senate to demand that the Executive Branch end its abuse of power in blocking publication of the Equal Rights Amendment  47 Dem Senators from 27 ratified States targeted plus Judiciary Committee and GOP Women. 

01/3/2022 Attorney Generals Raoul,  Ford and Herring file brief with DC US Court of Appeals arguing that the lower court dismissal overlooked the role that Article V of the Constitution gives states in the amendment process, improperly discounted the actions of the Illinois, Nevada, and Virginia state legislatures in ratifying the Equal Rights Amendment, and gave too much weight to seven-year deadline for ratification that Congress included in its language proposing the amendment.  

 1/5/2022 MA 1st Circuit rejects rehearing on ERA Appeal by Equal Means Equal  



"That should send chills down the spines of each and every one of us, that discrimination is not prevented against women in the Constitution of the United States"  Rep Jackie Speier 


(10/2019 HJRes 38 has 200 co-sponsors 2 Republican)

(10/2019 HJRes 33 House bill to Start-Over the ERA has 169 co-sponsors 5 are Republican.) 


 Created by Jean Sweeney Rethinking Eve with ERA details from Laura Carter Callow,  



*(NY Historical Society Joyce B. Cowin Women's History Gallery)  

**Mary Fish Noyes Stillman




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